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Aditya Chakravarty

Aditya Chakravarty


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Shami Chakrabarti

Sharmishta "Shami" Chakrabarti, baronesa Chakrabarti, CBE, PC (nacido el 16 de junio de 1969) es un político, abogado y activista de derechos humanos del Partido Laborista británico. Se desempeñó como directora de Liberty, un grupo de defensa que promueve las libertades civiles y los derechos humanos, de 2003 a 2016. De 2016 a 2020, se desempeñó como Fiscal General en la sombra para Inglaterra y Gales.

Chakrabarti nació en el distrito londinense de Harrow y estudió Derecho en la London School of Economics. Después de graduarse, la llamaron al Colegio de Abogados y luego trabajó como asesora legal interna para el Ministerio del Interior.

Cuando era directora de Liberty, hizo campaña contra la legislación antiterrorista "excesiva". En este puesto, contribuyó con frecuencia a BBC Radio 4 y a varios periódicos, y fue descrita en Los tiempos como "probablemente el cabildero de asuntos públicos más eficaz de los últimos 20 años". Fue uno de los miembros del panel de la Investigación Leveson sobre estándares de prensa durante 2011 y 2012. Entre 2014 y 2017, se desempeñó como rectora de la Universidad de Essex. [3]

En agosto de 2016, Chakrabarti se convirtió en un compañero vitalicio en los honores de renuncia del primer ministro.


Aditya Chakravarty - Historia

Chakravarty era conocido por hablar en contra de la escasez de mujeres en la ciencia y discutió abiertamente la doble carga que enfrentan las mujeres. Mientras que los hombres de treinta y tantos solo tenían que preocuparse por su carrera, las mujeres tenían la tarea adicional de equilibrar la vida familiar y sus compromisos laborales. Se las arregló para hacer un trabajo estelar administrando ambos, y se convirtió en una académica consumada mientras abrazó la maternidad en 2000 cuando nació su hija, Krithi.

Chakravarty era conocido por hablar en contra de la escasez de mujeres en la ciencia y discutió abiertamente la doble carga que enfrentan las mujeres.

Logros

Su trabajo recibió elogios generalizados y recibió varios premios y distinciones. El primer premio de Chakravarty llegó en 1996 cuando recibió el Medalla para jóvenes científicos desde el Academia Nacional de Ciencias de la India (INSA), una sociedad líder en ciencia y tecnología en India. De 1996 a 2003, se desempeñó como miembro de la Centro Internacional Abdus Salam de Física Teórica, Trieste, Italia, un instituto dedicado a la investigación científica y la excelencia. En 1999 obtuvo dos premios, el B.M. Premio Birla de Ciencias y Premio Anil Kumar Bose Memorial desde el Academia Nacional de Ciencias de la India. En 2003, recibió el Beca Swarnajayanti del Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología y en 2006 una beca de Academia de Ciencias de la India. Ella también recibió el prestigioso Premio Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar en 2009 y fue miembro asociado de la Centro de Ciencia de Materiales Computacionales, JCentro awaharlal Nehru de Investigación Científica Avanzada, Bangalore.

Muerte y legado

Desafortunadamente, perdimos al Dr. Chakravarty demasiado pronto, después de una larga y valiente lucha contra el cáncer. A pesar de que fue diagnosticada en 2013, siguió escribiendo y publicando artículos hasta su muerte, un testimonio de su voluntad indomable. Incluso recibió una beca en 2015 de INSA, una idea de la mente brillante que tuvo hasta el final. Charusita continuó tomando clases los días en que estaba lo suficientemente bien y se propuso hacer tiempo para sus amigos y familiares, a pesar de los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos y el terrible dolor. Falleció en 2016, a la edad de cincuenta y un años.

Si bien la perdimos demasiado pronto, mostró una especie de genio que es difícil de olvidar. Su trabajo la convirtió en un brillante modelo académico y ejemplar que llevó a numerosas mujeres a cruzar el umbral y entrar en los laboratorios.

Su legado sigue vivo y su impacto duradero en la comunidad científica se aclara mejor con un poema de Margaret Mead leído en su funeral.

A los vivos me he ido
A los tristes, nunca volveré
Para los enojados, me engañaron
Pero para los felices, estoy en paz
Y a los fieles, nunca me he ido
No puedo ser visto, pero puedo ser escuchado.
Así que mientras estás en la orilla, contemplando un hermoso mar, recuérdame
Mientras miras con asombro un bosque poderoso y su gran majestad, recuérdame
Mientras miras una flor y admiras su simplicidad, recuérdame
Recuérdame en tu corazón, tus pensamientos y tus recuerdos de los tiempos que amamos
Las veces que lloramos, las veces que peleamos, las veces que reímos
Porque si siempre piensas en mí, nunca me iré.


Recuperación de propiedades elásticas de fragmentos de roca

Dang, Son, Gupta, Ishank, Chakravarty, Aditya, Bhoumick, Pritesh, Taneja, Shantanu, Sondergeld, Carl y Chandra Rai. "Recuperación de propiedades elásticas de fragmentos de roca". Petrofísica 58 (2017): 270–280.

La caracterización mecánica de una roca isotrópica requiere la medición de al menos dos constantes elásticas. Las constantes dinámicas se obtienen mediante técnicas ultrasónicas y las constantes estáticas se obtienen a partir de la respuesta tensión-deformación de la roca. Ambas técnicas se pueden utilizar a presiones y temperaturas elevadas. Estos métodos normalmente implican el uso de tapones cilíndricos; sin embargo, la existencia de fracturas naturales o la fisibilidad de las formaciones de lutitas impide la extracción de núcleos. El desafío es mejorar la caracterización del yacimiento midiendo las propiedades elásticas utilizando muestras de rocas más pequeñas, irregulares pero ubicuas. Proponemos medir dos parámetros elásticos, es decir, el módulo de Young y el módulo de volumen a través de experimentos de nanoindentación y presión capilar de inyección de mercurio (MICP), respectivamente. Con estas dos constantes y el supuesto de isotropía, se pueden derivar todas las demás constantes elásticas isotrópicas. La idea es inferir el módulo de Young (minano) utilizando nanoindentación y estimar el módulo de volumen (KMICP) utilizando datos MICP, ninguna de las medidas requiere tapones de núcleos y puede llevarse a cabo en fragmentos de roca de forma irregular. Suponemos que los fragmentos son representativos de la formación de interés, la confirmación proviene del establecimiento de estadísticas. Medimos muestras de núcleos de esquisto de Woodford, Haynesville, Eagle Ford, Wolfcamp, Bakken, Utica y Green River. Estos valores se comparan con los valores obtenidos en experimentos de transmisión de pulsos ultrasónicos. Valores ultrasónicos de K medidos a una presión de confinamiento de 5000 psi concuerdan bien con los valores de KMICP a 5000 psi. Similar, minano muestra una correlación de 1: 1 con el módulo de Young derivado ultrasónicamente a una presión de confinamiento de 5000 psi. A una presión de confinamiento de 5000 psi, se reduce la influencia de las grietas.

El uso omnipresente de la fracturación hidráulica para estimular los reservorios no convencionales impulsa la necesidad de mejorar las metodologías para calcular las propiedades mecánicas de la roca. La variabilidad mineralógica (Rickman et al., 2008 2009 Passey et al., 2010) en lutitas debe considerarse en la decisión de la colocación de laterales. La ductilidad es una función de la mineralogía, la riqueza de TOC y el perfil de estrés in situ. Dentro de una zona de estimulación, donde las tensiones principales son mínimamente variadas, la variabilidad mineralógica afecta directamente las propiedades elásticas (Al-Tahini et al., 2006), la fragilidad y la ductilidad (Bai, 2016): las altas concentraciones de arcilla hacen que la lutita sea más dúctil, mientras que el predominio de cuarzo está asociado con la fragilidad. Jarvie et al., (2007) relacionaron la fragilidad directamente con la mineralogía.


Contenido

Vikramaditya significa "el sol de valor" (vikrama significa "valor" y aditya significa "sol"). También es conocido como Vikrama, Bikramjit y Vikramarka (arka también significa "sol"). Algunas leyendas lo describen como un libertador de la India de mlechchha invasores los invasores se identifican como Shakas en la mayoría, y el rey es conocido por el epíteto Shakari (IAST: Śakāri "enemigo de los Shakas"). [1]

Aunque Vikramaditya se menciona en algunas obras fechadas antes del período Gupta (240–550 d. C.), algunas partes (incluido Vikramaditya) pueden ser interpolaciones posteriores de la era Gupta. [2] El primer trabajo en mencionar a Vikramaditya fue probablemente Brihatkatha, una epopeya india escrita entre el siglo I a. C. y el siglo III d. C. en el idioma paisaci no comprobado. Su existencia (y su mención de Vikramaditya) está confirmada solo por adaptaciones en obras sobrevivientes que datan del siglo VI y posteriores y testimonios de poetas contemporáneos. Dado que no hay una copia sobreviviente de Brihatkatha, no se sabe si contenía las leyendas de Vikramaditya, sus adaptaciones posteriores a Gupta, como la Katha-Sarit-Sagara, puede contener interpolaciones. [3]

Gaha Sattasai (o Gatha-Saptasati), una colección de poemas atribuidos al rey Satavahana Hāla (r. 20-24 EC), menciona a un rey llamado Vikramaditya que regaló su riqueza por caridad. Sin embargo, muchas estrofas de este trabajo no son comunes a sus revisiones y son aparentes expansiones del período Gupta. [4] El verso sobre Vikramaditya es similar a una frase:Anekago-shatasahasra-hiranya-kotipradasya—Encontrada en las inscripciones de Gupta sobre Samudragupta y Chandragupta II (por ejemplo, las inscripciones en placa de cobre de Pune y Riddhapur de la hija de Chandragupta, Prabhavatigupta) esta frase puede haber sido una inserción posterior de la era Gupta en la obra atribuida a Hāla. [5]

Las primeras menciones indiscutibles de Vikramaditya aparecen en obras del siglo VI: la biografía de Vasubandhu por Paramartha (499-569) y Vasavadatta por Subandhu. [4] Paramaratha cita una leyenda que menciona a Ayodhya ("A-yu-ja") como la capital del rey Vikramaditya ("Pi-ka-la-ma-a-chi-ta"). [6] Según esta leyenda, el rey le dio 300.000 monedas de oro al erudito del Samkhya Vindhyavasa por derrotar al maestro budista de Vasubandhu (Buddhamitra) en un debate filosófico. Vasubandhu luego escribió Paramartha Saptati, ilustrando las deficiencias en la filosofía Samkhya. Vikramaditya, complacido con los argumentos de Vasubandhu, también le dio 300.000 monedas de oro. Vasubandhu más tarde le enseñó budismo al príncipe Baladitya y convirtió a la reina al budismo después de la muerte del rey. [7] Según Subandhu, Vikramaditya era un recuerdo glorioso para su época. [4]

En su Si-yu-ki, Xuanzang (c. 602 - c. 664) identifica a Vikramaditya como el rey de Shravasti. Según su relato, el rey (a pesar de las objeciones de su tesorero) ordenó que se distribuyeran 500.000 monedas de oro a los pobres y le dio a un hombre 100.000 monedas de oro por volver a encarrilarlo durante una cacería de jabalíes. Casi al mismo tiempo, un monje budista conocido como Manoratha pagó a un barbero 100.000 monedas de oro por afeitarse la cabeza. Vikramaditya, que se enorgullecía de su generosidad, se sintió avergonzado y organizó un debate entre Manoratha y 100 eruditos no budistas. Después de que Manoratha derrotó a 99 de los eruditos, el rey y otros no budistas le gritaron y lo humillaron al comienzo del último debate. Antes de su muerte, Manoratha le escribió a su discípulo Vasubandhu sobre la inutilidad de debatir sobre personas ignorantes y tendenciosas. Poco después de la muerte de Vikramaditya, Vasubandhu le pidió a su sucesor, Baladitya, que organizara otro debate para vengar la humillación de su mentor. En este debate, Vasubandhu derrotó a 100 eruditos no budistas. [8] [9]

Después del siglo IX, una era del calendario que comenzó en 57 a. C. (ahora llamada Vikrama Samvat) comenzó a asociarse con Vikramaditya. Algunas leyendas también asocian la era Shaka (que comienza en 78 d. C.) con él. Cuando el erudito persa Al-Biruni (973-1048) visitó la India, se enteró de que los indios usaban cinco eras: Sri Harsha, Vikramaditya (57 a. C.), Shaka (78 d. C.), Vallabha y Gupta. La era Vikramaditya se utilizó en el sur y el oeste de la India. Al-Biruni aprendió la siguiente leyenda sobre la era Shaka:

Un gobernante Shaka invadió el noroeste de la India y oprimió a los hindúes. Según una fuente, era un Shudra de la ciudad de Almanṣūra; según otra, era un no hindú que venía del oeste. En 78 EC, el rey hindú Vikramaditya lo derrotó y lo mató en la región de Karur, ubicada entre Multan y el castillo de Loni. Los astrónomos y otras personas comenzaron a usar esta fecha como el comienzo de una nueva era. [10]

Dado que había una diferencia de más de 130 años entre la era Vikramaditya y la era Shaka, Al-Biruni concluyó que sus fundadores eran dos reyes con el mismo nombre. La era Vikramaditya lleva el nombre de la primera, y la era Shaka se asoció con la derrota del gobernante Shaka por parte del segundo Vikramaditya. [10]

Según varias leyendas posteriores, en particular las leyendas jainistas, Vikramaditya estableció la era del 57 a. C. después de que derrotó a los Shakas y fue derrotado a su vez por Shalivahana, quien estableció la era del 78 d. C. Ambas leyendas son históricamente inexactas. Hay una diferencia de 135 años entre el comienzo de las dos eras, y Vikramaditya y Shalivahana no podrían haber vivido simultáneamente. La asociación de la era que comenzó en 57 a. C. con Vikramaditya no se encuentra en ninguna fuente antes del siglo IX. Fuentes anteriores llaman a esta era por varios nombres, incluyendo "Kṛṭa", "la era de la tribu Malava" o "Samvat" ("Era"). [11] [12] Eruditos como D. C. Sircar y D. R. Bhandarkar creen que el nombre de la era cambió a Vikrama Samvat durante el reinado de Chandragupta II, quien había adoptado el título de "Vikramaditya" (ver más abajo). También existen teorías alternativas, y Rudolf Hoernlé creía que fue Yashodharman quien renombró la era Vikrama Samvat. [12] La primera mención de la era Shaka como la era Shalivahana ocurre en el siglo XIII, y puede haber sido un intento de eliminar la asociación extranjera de la era. [13]

Brihatkatha adaptaciones Editar

De Kshemendra Brihatkathamanjari y el siglo XI de Somadeva Kathasaritsagara, ambas adaptaciones de Brihatkatha, contienen varias leyendas sobre Vikramaditya. Cada leyenda tiene varias historias de fantasía dentro de una historia, que ilustran su poder.

La primera leyenda menciona la rivalidad de Vikramaditya con el rey de Pratishthana. En esta versión, ese rey se llama Narasimha (no Shalivahana) y la capital de Vikramaditya es Pataliputra (no Ujjain). Según la leyenda, Vikramaditya era un adversario de Narasimha que invadió Dakshinapatha y sitió Pratishthana, fue derrotado y obligado a retirarse. Luego entró en Pratishthana disfrazado y se ganó a una cortesana. Vikramaditya fue su amante durante algún tiempo antes de regresar en secreto a Pataliputra. Antes de su regreso, dejó cinco estatuas de oro que había recibido de Kubera en la casa de la cortesana. Si un miembro de una de estas estatuas milagrosas se rompía y se le regalaba a alguien, el miembro dorado volvería a crecer. Lamentando la pérdida de su amante, la cortesana recurrió a la caridad conocida por sus obsequios de oro, y pronto superó a Narasimha en fama. Vikramaditya regresó más tarde a la casa de la cortesana, donde Narasimha lo conoció y se hizo amigo de él. Vikramaditya se casó con la cortesana y la llevó a Pataliputra. [14]

Libro 12 (Shashankavati) contiene la vetala panchavimshati leyendas, popularmente conocidas como Baital Pachisi. Se trata de una colección de 25 historias en las que el rey intenta captar y sujetar a una vetala que cuenta una historia desconcertante que termina con una pregunta. Además de Kathasaritsagara, la colección aparece en otras tres versiones en sánscrito, varias versiones vernáculas de la India y varias traducciones al inglés del sánscrito y del hindi. Es la más popular de las leyendas de Vikramaditya. [15] Hay variaciones menores entre las recensiones ver Lista de Cuentos de Vetala. En las recensiones de Kshemendra, Somadeva y Śivadāsa, el rey se llama Trivikramasena en Kathasaritsagara, su capital se encuentra en Pratishthana. [16] Al final de la historia, el lector se entera de que antes era Vikramaditya. Textos posteriores, como el sánscrito Vetala-Vikramaditya-Katha y las versiones vernáculas modernas, identifican al rey como Vikramaditya de Ujjain. [17]

Libro 18 (Vishamashila) contiene otra leyenda contada por Naravahanadatta a una asamblea de ermitaños en el ashram de un sabio, Kashyapa. Según la leyenda, Indra y otros devas le dijeron a Shiva que los asuras asesinados renacieron como mlechchhas. Shiva luego ordenó a su asistente, Malyavat, que naciera en Ujjain como el príncipe del reino de Avanti y matara a los mlechchhas. La deidad se le apareció al rey Avanti Mahendraditya en un sueño, diciéndole que su reina Saumyadarshana le nacería un hijo. Le pidió al rey que nombrara al niño Vikramaditya, y le dijo que el príncipe sería conocido como "Vishamashila" debido a su hostilidad hacia los enemigos. Malyavat nació como Vikramaditya cuando el príncipe creció, Mahendraditya se retiró a Varanasi. Vikramaditya inició una campaña para conquistar varios reinos y sometió a vetalas, rakshasas y otros demonios. Su general, Vikramashakti, conquistó Dakshinapatha en el sur de Madhyadesa en la región central de Surashtra en el oeste, y el país al este del Ganges Vikramashakti también hizo del reino norteño de Kashmira un estado tributario de Vikramaditya. Virasena, el rey de Sinhala, le dio a su hija Madanalekha a Vikramaditya en matrimonio. El emperador también se casó con otras tres mujeres (Gunavati, Chandravati y Madanasundari) y Kalingasena, la princesa de Kalinga. [18] [19]

los Brihatkathamanjari contiene leyendas similares, con algunas variaciones. El general Vikramashakti de Vikramaditya derrotó a varios mlechchhas, incluidos Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Barbaras, Tusharas y Persas. En Brihatkathamanjari y Kathasaritsagara, Malyavat nace más tarde como Gunadhya (el autor de Brihatkatha, en el que se basan estos libros). [20]

Rajatarangini Editar

Kalhana del siglo XII Rajatarangini menciona que Harsha Vikramaditya de Ujjayini derrotó a los Shakas. Según la crónica, Vikramaditya nombró a su amigo, el poeta Matrigupta, gobernante de Cachemira. Después de la muerte de Vikramaditya, Matrigupta abdicó del trono a favor de Pravarasena. [21] Según D. C. Sircar, Kalhana confundió al legendario Vikramaditya con el emperador Vardhana Harshavardhana (c. 606 - c. 47 EC) Madhusudana del siglo XVII. Bhavabodhini confunde igualmente a los dos reyes, y menciona que Harsha, el autor de Ratnavali, tenía su capital en Ujjain. [22]

Los reyes Paramara, que gobernaron Malwa (incluido Ujjain) desde el siglo IX hasta el XIV, se asociaron con Vikramaditya y otros reyes legendarios para justificar sus pretensiones imperiales. [23]

Simhasana Dvatrimsika Editar

Simhasana Dvatrimsika (conocido popularmente como Singhasan Battisi) contiene 32 cuentos populares sobre Vikramaditya. En esta colección de historias marco, el rey de Paramara Bhoja descubre el antiguo trono de Vikramaditya después de varios siglos. El trono tiene 32 estatuas, que en realidad son apsaras que fueron convertidas en piedra por una maldición. Cuando Bhoja intenta ascender al trono, una apsara cobra vida y le dice que ascienda al trono solo si es tan magnánimo como Vikramaditya (como lo revela su historia). Esto lleva a 32 intentos de Bhoja de ascender al trono, con 32 historias de la virtud de Vikramaditya después de cada una, Bhoja reconoce su inferioridad. Satisfecho con su humildad, las estatuas finalmente le permitieron ascender al trono.

Se desconoce el autor y la fecha del trabajo original. Dado que la historia menciona a Bhoja (que murió en 1055), debe haber sido compuesta después del siglo XI. [24] Cinco revisiones principales de la versión sánscrita, Simhasana-dvatrimsika, datan de los siglos XIII y XIV. [25] Según 1695 de Sujan Rai Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh, su autor fue Bhoja wazir (primer ministro) Pandit Braj. [26]

Vetala Panchavimshati y Simhasana Dvatrimsika son estructuralmente opuestos. En el Vetala cuentos, Vikramaditya es el personaje central de la historia marco, pero no está conectado con los cuentos individuales excepto por escucharlos de la vetala. Aunque la historia marco de la Cuentos del trono está ambientado mucho después de la muerte de Vikramaditya, esos cuentos describen su vida y hechos. [27]

Bhavishya Purana Editar

Las leyendas de la era Paramara asocian a los gobernantes de Paramara con reyes legendarios, con el fin de realzar los reclamos imperiales de Paramara. [28] El Bhavishya Purana, un antiguo texto hindú que ha sido editado hasta el siglo XIX, [29] conecta a Vikramaditya con los Paramaras. Según el texto (3.1.6.45-7.4), el primer rey Paramara fue Pramara (nacido de un pozo de fuego en el Monte Abu, por lo tanto, un Agnivansha). Vikramaditya, Shalivahana y Bhoja se describen como descendientes de Pramara y miembros de la dinastía Paramara. [23]

De acuerdo con la Bhavishya Purana, cuando el mundo fue degradado por creencias no védicas, Shiva envió a Vikramaditya a la tierra y estableció un trono decorado con 32 diseños para él (una referencia a Simhasana Dvatrimsika). La esposa de Shiva, Parvati, creó una vetala para proteger a Vikramaditya e instruirlo con acertijos (una referencia a Baital Pachisi leyendas). Después de escuchar las historias de la vetala, Vikramaditya realizó un ashvamedha (sacrificio de caballo). El vagabundeo del caballo de sacrificio definió el límite del imperio de Vikramaditya: el río Indo en el oeste, Badaristhana (Badrinath) en el norte, Kapila en el este y Setubandha (Rameshwaram) en el sur. El emperador unió a los cuatro clanes Agnivanshi al casarse con princesas de los tres clanes no Paramara: Vira del clan Chauhan, Nija del clan Chalukya y Bhogavati del clan Parihara. Todos los dioses excepto Chandra celebraron su éxito (una referencia a los Chandravanshis, rivales de los clanes Suryavanshi como los Paramaras). [30]

Había 18 reinos en el imperio de Vikramaditya de Bharatavarsha (India). Después de un reinado impecable, ascendió al cielo. [30] Al comienzo del Kali Yuga, Vikramaditya vino de Kailasa y convocó a una asamblea de sabios del bosque de Naimisha. Gorakhnath, Bhartrhari, Lomaharsana, Saunaka y otros sabios recitaron los Puranas y los Upapuranas. [30] Cien años después de la muerte de Vikramaditya, los Shakas invadieron la India nuevamente. Shalivahana, el nieto de Vikramaditya, los subyugó a ellos y a otros invasores. Quinientos años después de la muerte de Shalivahana, Bhoja derrotó a los invasores posteriores. [23]

Varias obras de autores jainistas contienen leyendas sobre Vikramaditya, que incluyen: [31]

    's Prabhavaka Charita (1127 d.C.)
  • De Somaprabha Kumara-Pala-Pratibodha (1184)
  • Kalakacharya-Katha (antes de 1279)
  • Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani (1304)
  • Jinaprabhasuri Vividha-Tirtha-Kalpa (1315)
  • Rajashekhara's Prabandha-Kosha (1348)
  • Devamurti Vikrama-Charitra (1418)
  • Ramachandrasuri Pancha-Danda-Chhattra-Prabandha (1433)
  • De Subhashila Vikrama-Charitra (1442) (listas de monjes principales)

Existen pocas referencias a Vikramaditya en la literatura jainista antes de mediados del siglo XII, aunque Ujjain aparece con frecuencia. Después del rey jainista Kumarapala (r. 1143-1172), se puso de moda entre los escritores jainistas comparar Kumarapala con Vikramaditya. A fines del siglo XIII, comenzaron a surgir leyendas que presentaban a Vikramaditya como un emperador jainista. Un tema importante en la tradición Jain es que el Jain acharya Siddhasena Divakara convirtió a Vikramaditya al Jainismo. Se dice que le dijo a Vikramaditya que 1,199 años después de él, habría otro gran rey como él (Kumarapala). [32]

La tradición jainista originalmente tenía cuatro historias relacionadas con Simhasana y cuatro historias de acertijos relacionadas con vetala. Los autores jainistas posteriores adoptaron los 32 Simhasana Dvatrimsika y 25 Vetala Panchavimshati cuentos. [31]

El autor jainista Hemachandra nombra a Vikramaditya como uno de los cuatro reyes eruditos, los otros tres son Shalivahana, Bhoja y Munja. [33] Merutunga Vicarasreni coloca su victoria en Ujjain en el 57 a. C. y da a entender que sus cuatro sucesores gobernaron del 3 al 78 d. C. [34]

Rivalidad Shalivahana-Vikramaditya Editar

Muchas leyendas, particularmente las leyendas jainistas, asocian a Vikramaditya con Shalivahana de Pratishthana (otro rey legendario). En algunos es derrotado por Shalivahana, quien comienza la era Shalivahana en otros, es un antepasado de Shalivahana. Algunas leyendas llaman al rey de Pratishthana "Vikramaditya". La rivalidad política entre los reyes a veces se extiende al lenguaje, con Vikramaditya apoyando al sánscrito y Shalivahana apoyando a Prakrit. [35]

En el Kalakacharya-Kathanaka, El padre de Vikramaditya, Gardabhilla, secuestró a la hermana de Kalaka (un jain acharya). Ante la insistencia de Kalaka, los Shakas invadieron Ujjain e hicieron a Gardabhilla su prisionero. Vikramaditya llegó más tarde de Pratishthana, derrotó a los Shakas y comenzó la era de Vikrama Samvat para conmemorar su victoria. [21] [36] Según Alain Daniélou, el Vikramaditya en esta leyenda se refiere a un rey Satavahana. [37]

Otros textos jainistas contienen variaciones de una leyenda sobre la derrota de Vikramaditya a manos del rey de Pratishthana, conocido como Satavahana o Shalivahana. Este tema se encuentra en Jina-Prabhasuri Kalpa-Pradipa, De Rajashekhara Prabandha-Kosha y Salivahana-Charitra, una obra marathi. Según la leyenda, Satavahana era hijo del jefe Nāga (serpiente) Shesha y una viuda brahmán que vivía en la casa de un alfarero. Su nombre, Satavahana, se deriva de satani (dar) y vahana (un medio de transporte) porque esculpió elefantes, caballos y otros medios de transporte con arcilla y se los dio a otros niños. Vikramaditya percibió presagios de que su asesino había nacido. Envió a su vetala para encontrar al niño que el vetala rastreó a Satavahana en Pratishthana, y Vikramaditya dirigió un ejército allí. Con la magia Nāga, Satavahana convirtió sus figuras de arcilla de caballos, elefantes y soldados en un verdadero ejército. Derrotó a Vikramaditya (que huyó a Ujjain), comenzó su propia era y se convirtió en jainista. [38] [33] [39] Hay varias variaciones de esta leyenda: Vikramaditya es asesinado por la flecha de Satavahana en la batalla, se casa con la hija de Satavahana y tienen un hijo (conocido como Vikramasena o Vikrama-charitra), o Satavahana es el hijo de Manorama, esposa de un guardaespaldas del rey de Pratishthana. [38]

En una leyenda medieval tamil, Vikramaditya tiene 32 marcas en su cuerpo, una característica de los emperadores universales. Un brahmán necesitado de mercurio alquímico le dice que se puede obtener si el emperador ofrece su cabeza a la diosa Kamakshi de Kanchipuram. Aunque Vikramaditya acepta sacrificarse, la diosa cumple su deseo sin el sacrificio. [40]

En otra leyenda tamil, Vikramaditya ofrece realizar una variante del Navakhandam rito (cortar el cuerpo en nueve lugares) para complacer a los dioses. Ofrece cortar su cuerpo en ocho lugares (para los ocho Bhairavas) y ofrece su cabeza a la diosa. A cambio, convence a la diosa de que ponga fin al sacrificio humano. [40]

Chola Purva Patayam (Antiguo registro de Chola), un manuscrito tamil de fecha incierta, contiene una leyenda sobre el origen divino de las tres dinastías tamiles. En esta leyenda, Shalivahana (también conocido como Bhoja) es un rey shramana. Derrota a Vikramaditya y comienza a perseguir a los adoradores de Shiva y Vishnu. Shiva luego crea los tres reyes Tamil para derrotarlo: Vira Cholan, Ula Cheran y Vajranga Pandiyan. Los reyes tienen una serie de aventuras, incluida la búsqueda de tesoros e inscripciones de reyes hindúes desde la era de Shantanu hasta Vikramaditya. Finalmente derrotaron a Shalivahana en el año 1443 (de una era de calendario incierta, posiblemente desde el comienzo de Kali Yuga). [41]

Según una leyenda en Ayodhya, la ciudad fue redescubierta por Vikramaditya después de que estuvo perdida durante siglos. Vikramaditya comenzó a buscar a Ayodhya y conoció a Prayaga, el rey de los tirthas. Guiado por Prayaga, Vikramaditya marcó el lugar pero luego se olvidó de dónde estaba. Un yogui le dijo que debería liberar una vaca y un ternero Ayodhya sería donde la leche comenzara a fluir de la ubre de la vaca. Siguiendo este consejo, Vikramaditya encontró el sitio de la antigua Ayodhya. [42]

Según Hans T. Bakker, el actual Ayodhya fue originalmente el Saketa mencionado en las fuentes budistas. El emperador Skandagupta de Gupta, que se comparaba a sí mismo con Rama y también era conocido como Vikramaditya, trasladó su capital a Saketa y la rebautizó como Ayodhya en honor a la ciudad legendaria del Ramayana. [42] El Vikramaditya mencionado en la biografía de Vasubandhu de los siglos IV-V EC de Paramartha se identifica generalmente con un rey Gupta, como Skandagupta [43] o Purugupta. [9] Aunque los reyes Gupta gobernaban desde Pataliputra, Ayodhya estaba dentro de sus dominios. Sin embargo, estudiosos como Ashvini Agrawal rechazan este relato por ser inexacto. [44]

Según el poema heroico de Ananta del siglo XII, Vira-Charitra (o Viracharita), Shalivahana (o Satavahana) derrotó y mató a Vikramaditya y gobernó desde Pratishthana. El asociado de Shalivahana, Shudraka, se alió más tarde con los sucesores de Vikramaditya y derrotó a los descendientes de Shalivahana. Esta leyenda contiene una serie de historias mitológicas. [45] [46]

Śivadāsa del siglo XII al XIV Śālivāhana Kātha (o Shalivahana-Charitra) describe de manera similar la rivalidad entre Vikramaditya y Shalivahana. [47] Ānanda's Mādhavānala Kāmakandalā Kathā es una historia de amantes separados que son reunidos por Vikramaditya. [47] Vikramodaya es una serie de cuentos en verso en los que el emperador aparece como un loro sabio, una serie similar se encuentra en el texto jainista, Pārśvanāthacaritra. [47] El siglo XV (o posterior)Pañcadaṇḍachattra Prabandha (La historia de los paraguas con cinco palos) contiene "historias de magia y brujería, llenas de maravillosas aventuras, en las que Vikramāditya desempeña el papel de un poderoso mago". [47] La ​​obra gujarati del siglo XVI de Ganapati, Madhavanala-Kamakandala-Katha, también contiene historias de Vikramaditya. [35]

En Jyotirvidabharana (22.10), un tratado atribuido a Kalidasa, nueve notables eruditos (los Navaratnas) estaban en la corte de Vikramaditya: [12]

Sin embargo, muchos eruditos consideran Jyotirvidabharana una falsificación literaria escrita después de la muerte de Kalidasa. [12] Según V. V. Mirashi, que fecha la obra en el siglo XII, no pudo haber sido compuesta por Kalidasa porque contiene errores gramaticales. [21] No hay mención de tales Navaratnas en la literatura anterior, y D. C. Sircar llama Jyotirvidabharana "absolutamente inútil para propósitos históricos". [48]

No hay evidencia histórica que indique que los nueve eruditos fueran figuras contemporáneas o protegidas del mismo rey. [21] [49] Se cree que Vararuchi vivió alrededor del siglo III o IV EC. Aunque se debate la vida de Kalidasa, la mayoría de los historiadores lo ubican alrededor del siglo V, se sabe que Varahamihira vivió en el siglo VI. Dhanavantari fue el autor de un glosario médico (un nighantu), pero su vida es incierta. Amarasimha tampoco se puede fechar con certeza, pero su léxico utiliza obras de Dhanavantari y Kalidasa, por lo tanto, no se puede fechar en el siglo I a. C. (se dice que Vikramaditya estableció una era en el 57 a. C.). Poco se sabe sobre Shanku, Vetalabhatta, Kshapanaka y Ghatakarpara. Algunos escritores jainistas identifican a Siddhasena Divakara como Kshapanaka, pero los historiadores no lo aceptan. [50]

Kalidasa es la única figura cuya asociación con Vikramaditya se menciona en obras anteriores a Jyotirvidabharana. Según Rajasekhara's Kāvyamimāṃsa (Siglo X), Bhoja's Sringara Prakasa y de Kshemendra Auchitya-Vichara-Charcha (ambos del siglo XI), Vikramaditya envió a Kalidasa como su embajador en el país de Kuntala (actual Uttara Kannada). Sin embargo, la historicidad de estos informes es dudosa. [51]

Aunque algunos autores creen que Vikramaditya era un personaje mítico, otros plantean la hipótesis de que fue un rey histórico de Malava de alrededor del siglo I a. C. Otros creen que era un personaje legendario basado en un rey histórico, identificado como Chandragupta II, Gautamiputra Satakarni o Yashodharman. [49] Vikramaditya también puede estar basado en varios reyes, leyendas sobre quienes gradualmente se fusionaron en una tradición que lo rodeaba. Según K. Krishnamoorthy, "Vikramaditya" y "Kalidasa" se usaban como sustantivos comunes para identificar a un rey patrón y un poeta de la corte. [52]

Rey de Malava Editar

Rajbali Pandey, Kailash Chand Jain y otros creen que Vikramaditya era un rey de Malava con base en Ujjain. The Shakas advanced from Sindh to Malwa around the first century BCE, and were defeated by Vikramaditya. The Krita era, which later came to be known as Vikrama Samvat, marked this victory. Chandragupta II later adopted the title of Vikramaditya after defeating the Shakas. Proponents of this theory say that Vikramaditya is mentioned in works dating to before the Gupta era, including Brihatkatha y Gatha Saptashati. Vikramaditya cannot be based on Chandragupta II, since the Gupta capital was at Pataliputra (not Ujjain). [49] According to Raj Pruthi, legends surrounding this first-century king gradually became intertwined with those of later kings called "Vikramaditya" (including Chandragupta II). [36]

Critics of this theory say that Gatha Saptashati shows clear signs of Gupta-era interpolation. [2] According to A. K. Warder, Brihatkathamanjari y Kathasaritsagara are "enormously inflated and deformed" recensions of the original Brihatkatha. [20] The early Jain works do not mention Vikramaditya and the navaratnas have no historical basis as the nine scholars do not appear to have been contemporary figures. [49] Legends surrounding Vikramaditya are contradictory, border on the fantastic and are inconsistent with historical facts no epigraphic, numismatic or literary evidence suggests the existence of a king with the name (or title) of Vikramaditya around the first century BCE. Although the Puranas contain genealogies of significant Indian kings, they do not mention a Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain or Pataliputra before the Gupta era. There is little possibility of an historically-unattested, powerful emperor ruling from Ujjain around the first century BCE among the Shungas (187–78 BCE), the Kanvas (75–30), the Satavahanas (230 BCE–220 CE), the Shakas (c. 200 BCE – c. 400 CE ) and the Indo-Greeks (180 BCE–10 CE). [13] [49]

Gupta kings Edit

A number of Gupta Empire kings adopted the title of Vikramaditya or its equivalent, such as Samudragupta's "Parakramanka". According to D. C. Sircar, Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri and others, the exploits of these kings contributed to the Vikramaditya legends. Distinctions among them were lost over time, and the legendary Shalivahana was similarly based on the exploits of several Satavahana kings. [53]

Chandragupta II Edit

Some scholars, including D. R. Bhandarkar, V. V. Mirashi and D. C. Sircar, believe that Vikramaditya is probably based on the Gupta king Chandragupta II. [21] [49] Based on coins and the Supia pillar inscription, it is believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya. [21] [54] The Khambat and Sangli plates of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda IV use the epithet "Sahasanka", which has also been applied to Vikramaditya, for Chandragupta II. [49] According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Chandragupta's victory against the Shakas was transposed to a fictional character who is credited with establishing the Vikrama Samvat era. [23]

In most of the legends Vikramaditya had his capital at Ujjain, although some mention him as king of Pataliputra (the Gupta capital). According to D. C. Sircar, Chandragupta II may have defeated the Shaka invaders of Ujjain and made his son, Govindagupta, a viceroy there. Ujjain may have become a second Gupta capital, and legends about him (as Vikramaditya) may have developed. [49] [55] The Guttas of Guttavalal, a minor dynasty based in present-day Karnataka, claimed descent from the Gupta Empire. Their Chaudadanapura inscription alludes to Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain, and several Gutta kings were named Vikramaditya. According to Vasundhara Filliozat, the Guttas confused Vikramaditya with Chandragupta II [56] however, D. C. Sircar sees this as further proof that Vikramaditya was based on Chandragupta II. [57]

Skandagupta Edit

The Vikramaditya of Ayodhya legend is identified as Skandagupta ( r . 455 – 467 CE ) by a number of scholars. [42] [43] Book 18 of the Kathasaritsagara describes Vikramaditya as a son of Mahendraditya of Ujjain. According to D.C. Sircar, Kumaragupta I (r. 415–455 CE) adopted the title Mahendraditya. His son, Skandagupta, adopted the title Vikramaditya, and this set of legends may be based on Skandagupta. [22]

Other rulers Edit

En el Kathasaritsagara recension of the 25 vetala stories, the king is mentioned as the ruler of Pratishthana. A. K. Warder notes that the Satavahanas were the only notable ancient dynasty who ruled from Pratishthana. [17] According to a Satavahana inscription, their king Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated the Shakas. One of Gautamiputra Satakarni's epithets was vara-varana-vikrama-charu-vikrama. However, according to D. C. Sircar, the epithet means "one whose gait is as beautiful as that of a choice elephant" and is unrelated to Vikramaditya. Most other Vikramaditya legends note the king's capital as Ujjain (or, less commonly, Pataliputra), but the Satavahanas never had their capital at these cities. Vikramaditya was also described as an adversary of the Pratishthana-based king Satavahana (or Shalivahana) in a number of legends. [58]

Max Müller believed that the Vikramaditya legends were based on the sixth-century Aulikara king Yashodharman. The Aulikaras used the Malava era (later known as Vikrama Samvat) in their inscriptions. According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the name of the Malava era was changed to Vikramaditya by Yashodharman. Hoernlé also believed that Yashodharman conquered Kashmir and is the Harsha Vikramaditya mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. [12] Although Yashodharman defeated the Hunas (who were led by Mihirakula), the Hunas were not the Shakas Yashodharman's capital was at Dasapura (modern Mandsaur), not Ujjain. There is no other evidence that he inspired the Vikramaditya legends. [59] [60]

Several Vikramaditya stories appear in the Amar Chitra Katha comic-book series. [61] Indian films on king Vikramaditya include G. V. Sane's Vikram Satvapariksha (1921), Nanubhai B. Desai's Vikram Charitra (1924), Harshadrai Sakerlal Mehta's Vikram Charitra (1933), Vikram Shashikala (1949), Vijay Bhatt's Vikramaditya (1945), Kemparaj Urs' Raja Vikrama (1950), Dhirubhai Desai's Raja Vikram (1957), Chandrasekhara Rao Jampana's Bhatti Vikramarka (1960), T. R. Raghunath's Vikramaadhithan (1962), Chakravarty Vikramaditya (1964), S. N. Tripathi's Maharaja Vikram (1965), G. Suryam's Vikramarka Vijayam (1971), Shantilal Soni's Vikram Vetal (1986), Krishna's Simhasanam and Singhasan (1986), Ravi Raja Pinisetty's Raja Vikramarka (1990), Rajiv Chilakalapudi's Vikram Betal (2004). [62]

Vikram Aur Betaal, which appeared on Doordarshan in the 1980s, was based on Baital Pachisi. Kahaniya Vikram aur Betaal Ki, a remake of the Doordarshan television show, aired on Colors TV in 2009. An adaptation of Singhasan Battisi was aired on Doordarshan during the late 1980s. In 2014, another adaptation was aired on Sony Pal. [63] Currently a series Vikram Betaal Ki Rahasya Gatha is running on &TV where popular actor Aham Sharma is playing the role of Vikramaditya.

The Indian Navy aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya was named in honour of Vikramaditya. [64] On 22 December 2016, a commemorative postage stamp honouring Samrat Vikramadittya was released by India Post. [65] Historical-fiction author Shatrujeet Nath retells the emperor's story in his Vikramaditya Veergatha serie. [66]


Song For Sushant Singh Rajput Is Winning Hearts Lyricist Aditya Chakravarty Says It Meant To Empathise With The Late Actor’s Family

Song for Sushant meant to empathise with his family: Lyricist (Photo Credit: Facebook/Sushant Singh Rajput)

A song dedicated to Sushant Singh Rajput and released recently is not surprisingly winning over his fans. The melodious track has been shared on social media by family members of the late actor.

Titled “Insaaf ye ek sawaal hai”, the song talks of justice. It has been written by Aditya Chakravarty and produced by Sushant’s family friend Nilotpal Mrinal, who took part in the late actor’s last rites. Varun Jain has lent his voice to the song composed by Shubham Sundaram.

Talking about the song, lyricist Aditya Chakravarty told IANS: “The song is a tribute to Sushant Singh Rajput. Sushant’s family friend Nilotpal Mrinal, who is also a friend of composer Shubham Sundaram, had approached us saying he wants to give a musical tribute to Sushant. That’s how the song was made.”

Tendencias

“Ek sitaara woh asmaan ka rehta ab behaal hai, kya milega uski rooh ko insaaf ye ek sawaal hai…” reads a couple of lines from the song.

On what inspired him to pen lyrics that talk of seeking justice, Aditya replied: “The inspiration behind the song was empathy. I could empathise with his father, his sisters and other family members. We all want the mystery behind his death to be solved. The loss is not as personal to us as it is to them. They are in deep pain. They wanted a star in their life, they got him but they lost him too soon.”

Now that the CBI has taken over the investigation, does he feel Sushant will get justice? “As a citizen of this country, I have total faith in the judicial system, now that the case has been taken over by the CBI. I am sure ‘insaaf’ (justice) will be delivered to his departed soul and to his family members. Justice should also be delivered to each and every person who is struggling for it in every part of this country,” shared the lyricist.


Chapter 12: Leaving China – XIV

In the penultimate part, Mitali shares the woes and wonders of leaving China – a weird local mover, strange rules for expats, her children who hated swanky hotels and more. An exclusive for Different Truths.

It is funny the way we pack our lives in boxes and suitcases and move on… all our memories in our hand phones or laptops. I always think of John Denver’s song Leaving on a Jet Plane 1 .

All my bags are packed, I’m ready to go, I’m standin’ here outside your door
I hate to wake you up to say goodbye…

The sentiment is similar, except the goodbye is to memories, places and friends.

The relocation agents helped us find movers who packed our home into boxes two weeks before our departure.

The relocation agents helped us find movers who packed our home into boxes two weeks before our departure. Earlier, the boxes could be packed on the day the expatriates were leaving. The rules concerning expat repatriation had changed a month before we were due to leave. Many rules had started to change. Xi Jinping had come to power the year before we left.

The boxes with our things and my husband’s passport had to be submitted together to the immigration for a fortnight. Earlier, instead of the passport, they were happy with a photocopy. We were asked to wait for two weeks without our essential household things. As a result, we had to move into a hotel. This was a learning that rules could change anytime in China or elsewhere. We just needed to accept the changes and adapt.

When the movers came, Surya spent all his time with Ali in his home or inside our car.

When the movers came, Surya spent all his time with Ali in his home or inside our car. The movers packed and transferred all our belongings out of the house in a huge, covered truck with their name emblazoned on the vehicle. Everything went, except for the suitcases that had our essentials for a couple of months and the children’s piano. The emptiness of the house felt strange. We wanted to hand over the keys to our landlord at the soonest.

The Pearl River piano, which was bound with happy memories for the children, had to be either abandoned or given away. Moving the piano overseas would cost more than buying a new one in Singapore. We wanted to give the piano to a child who would cherish it as much as our sons. So, we asked around and one of the expat families happily obliged. They had a lovely four-year-old daughter who was starting to learn to play the instrument. They were friends of ours – a Turkish American family with roots in California. Let us call the couple Sabrina and David for convenience. They organised the movers. Their house was about 500 metres from ours. But both the houses had staircases and the piano was delicate.

We decided to organise professional help so that the piano would not be damaged. Sabrina organised a local mover.

We decided to organise professional help so that the piano would not be damaged. Sabrina organised a local mover. He promised to come at 10.30 a.m. Sabrina and David came over at 10.15 in the morning. We waited. It was past 10.30. We waited. 11.00 O’clock. Sabrina telephoned David’s secretary to call the mover as he spoke only Mandarin. The secretary called back and said the mover had almost reached. We informed the security at the gate we were expecting a lorry. No vino nada.

Then, Sabrina’s mother-in-law called up. The mover was in their house. Sabrina ran back to get him. She returned walking in some time. We were all surprised. We had thought she would come in the mover’s van. But she came walking!

We all looked at her in askance. “He has not got his lorry. He is coming here on his e-bike,” she explained. As she finished her sentence, an e-bike drew up in front of our house.

A tiny dwarf of a skinny man got off. He smiled, nodded and greeted us, “Ni hao (how are you)?” We all greeted him too. "Ni hao.”

He swaggered in as if on a social visit. He walked towards the piano. Aditya, our translator, told him we needed to move the piano from our home to Sabrina’s.

He swaggered in as if on a social visit. He walked towards the piano. Aditya, our translator, told him we needed to move the piano from our home to Sabrina’s. He responded by saying that he needed ten men to lift it. When Aditya asked him about his lorry, he responded by saying the vehicle would break under the piano’s weight!

We were astounded! He told us the piano could not be moved that day as he would have to get ten men and they were all busy. He stayed for fifteen minutes trying to explain how impossible and unreasonable it was to think of moving the piano that day itself. Such things took time was his final verdict. He stated this with aplomb, much like a local Julius Caesar – veni, vidi, vici…

However, we were not convinced. We needed to move the piano that day as the keys had to be handed over to the landlord the next day. So, the mover came, saw and left – much like the fishpond cleaners who had given us a taste of what to expect from ‘regular’ workers.

Aditya said, “This guy is bizarre. Only two of us moved the piano at school on a trolley.”

“But we don’t have a trolley. And we need to move it today,” I said.

“We could do it by sliding the piano on a rug or a carpet,” said my husband.

The movers had packed our rugs and carpets and taken them away. Sabrina got two rugs from her home. We roped in another friend’s husband, David’s father and our driver to help us. So, half a dozen men panted up and down and up the stairs of Sabrina’s home with the piano and rugs. It took quite some time and a lot of effort. It was a case of amazing teamwork which I thought was so nice to watch but I am not so sure that it was nice for the team to heave and shove so as not to damage the piano!

Sabrina organised huge jugs of lemonade for all the movers. Aditya inaugurated the piano in their home.

Sabrina organised huge jugs of lemonade for all the movers. Aditya inaugurated the piano in their home. Now, we were officially ready to hand over the keys the next day.

The landlord came with his wife this time. They told us they would have liked us to continue as long as we were in China. They were very kind. They loved what I had done to the garden. His wife was thrilled seeing I had planted a Chinese flowering plant, called the Yue Liang Hua (the moon flower). She said this flower was associated with Shanghai, where she grew up. I knew this flower had a heady perfume and my driver often used it inside the car instead of a car perfume. They were equally excited with the fishpond, where the koi had bred and now I had nearly two dozen fishes.

We had to stay in the hotel for almost a fortnight. That was a long time for us. Staying in a hotel has always been a trial for my trio.

We had to stay in the hotel for almost a fortnight. That was a long time for us. Staying in a hotel has always been a trial for my trio. I still recall the time Aditya first stayed in Sheraton in Hong Kong. He was four and did not like the hotel food. He asked me if I could cook for him. In Hawaii, when he was six, he threw up on an exclusive hotel meal in a six-star resort, where we were having an official gathering!

Surya was not much better. When he was one-and-a-half, we were staying for a long weekend in Johor, Malaysia. He shook his foot so much in delight while seated on a high-chair in the 24-hour coffee shop of the hotel that his shoes flew off and landed on somebody in the adjoining table. Seeing the ruckus, it created, Surya decided to fling his shoes every time he was put into a baby chair in the restaurant. It became a nightmare for us. The hotel staff were terrified whenever we entered the coffee shop. They would put us in a corner table emptied of all cutlery and napkins as they did not want Surya to exercise his skills on their wares or aim his shoes at their customers!

Two-year-old Surya discovered the joys of a rotating door in the hotel. The doormen were terrified again and requested we keep him away from the doors…

When we moved to China, we had to stay a week in a hotel while our home was readied for us. Two-year-old Surya discovered the joys of a rotating door in the hotel. The doormen were terrified again and requested we keep him away from the doors – not an easy task when we were in the lobby. Surya protested being cooped in a luxurious room where he had no freedom to practise his sporting skills. He also wanted to catch the fish in an indoor koi pond in the hotel and the staff had a tough time being polite about it. Staying with a toddler in a hotel is not exactly a relaxing affair.

This time the two of them were older. We had a beautiful view of the Jinji Lake from our rooms. The sunset on the lake against the silhouette of tall buildings was spectacular. Aditya had a separate room. Surya was ten and Aditya seventeen-and-a-half. They were a little better adjusted in the hotel than eight years ago… except Surya had the whole security on my tracks when I got a little delayed in the lift one day.

I had gone to get his swimming goggles when he discovered he had left them behind in our room. I told him to get changed and wait by the poolside while I fetched the goggles. The lift was a little delayed. The lifeguards and attendants stood around him when I returned to the poolside. It seems they could not reach me when they tried to call my mobile. I had been gone only about ten to fifteen minutes. It was a big hotel, and I had the walk between our room and the pool then I had to unlock the door and take the goggles.

Surya was singing a nonsensical song that day and doing weird walks along the corridor in a bid to dispense his extra energy.

As I was returning to the poolside, I was delayed as I was greeted by another guest, an American who lived in the hotel permanently. I had to tell him where Surya was in response to his query. We had got acquainted when he and his visiting teenage son, commented on Surya’s antics. Surya was singing a nonsensical song that day and doing weird walks along the corridor in a bid to dispense his extra energy. It was hazy with pollution outside, and we could not do our usual walk for the high PSI levels.

At home, Surya would have read, played a game, visited a friend or had one over. But in the hotel, he had to create his own sport. We had an amused audience of the American and his son… To me it was really strange that a person, even if he were living alone, would choose to stay in a hotel on a daily basis. It could be so restrictive. You could never satisfy your yearning to cook a gastronomic delight! You could never do up your room with your choice of colours and paintings. You could never invite your friends over for a meal cooked by you. You could never try out a new musical instrument in the later hours of the evening.

Trying out a musical instrument in an apartment is difficult too if you come to think of it. I remember, in Suzhou, a friend’s husband practiced his guitaring in their penthouse every night. The downstairs found it unacceptable and complained regularly.

When Aditya practiced his French horn, our Finnish neighbour upstairs was really delighted. He wanted to know if Aditya could play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn.

Aditya could you play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn, pretty please. PC: Anumita C Roy

We were luckier. When Aditya practiced his French horn, our Finnish neighbour upstairs was really delighted. He wanted to know if Aditya could play the Finnish National Anthem on the French horn. In fact, in my first bungalow, I remember when Aditya started the French horn in school, he would practice exactly at the time we had dinner. And it was a painful experience for us to hear what sounded like an elephants’ snorting loudly in the next room. Then, a friend told us, their kid practising the violin resembled the sound of a pig being slaughtered and the father would run out of the house with cotton stuffed in his ears! So, by and large, we had never had issues with boys practising the piano, guitar, recorder or clarinet at home in a bungalow or in the apartments. And eventually, the results of being tolerant were fabulous. My heart swelled with pride when Aditya played a solo on his French horn on stage – Beethoven’s Ode to Joy. I remember Surya was four and he loved it too. He hummed it on the way to his kindergarten. I wanted him to hum it for his teacher, but he was silent. He would not do it.

One of the things I have discovered as a parent is if you want your children to excel at something, the best option is to give them plenty of space and not push them to be child prodigies. After all Mozart – the child prodigy – had a miserable life. I wanted my sons to be happy and not prodigies. Childhood is a time for fun, for learning to think, for learning from mistakes, for being able to make noise and run and play, for wild imaginings, for make believe, for moving towards realising their wonderful dreams and finding out who they are and not who their parents imagine they want them to be.

While we waited at the hotel to leave China, we spent our time doing last-minute visits to different places, going for walks along Jinji and eating out.

While we waited at the hotel to leave China, we spent our time doing last minute visits to different places, going for walks along Jinji and eating out. Most of our friends had left for their annual home leave. Only Ali’s family remained. They were also leaving Suzhou two weeks after us and were in the process of packing their home into boxes too. Our farewell parties had all been done earlier – only the official farewells remained. We had gifts starting from calligraphies to books to oodles of Chinese tea given to us. We came away feeling we would always have friends there, not just in the expat community but among locals.

We bid adieu to a number of our favourite spots. There were these elaborate gardens the Humble Administrator’s garden 2 which was glorious during spring with cherry blossoms and our favourite, the Lion Forest Garden 3 , built during the Yuan Dynasty in the fourteenth century, the Panmen Gate 4 and the canal around it. The Lion Forest Garden, other than plants, had concrete passages and mazes that my sons loved – much in the same tradition as the rocks that Surya and his friends liked to hack in our garden. The Panmen Gate belonged to the BCEs as did the buildings around it. We visited the 2,500year-old Tiger Hill 5 with a Pagoda which leans a bit and for that reason is often compared to the famous leaning tower of Pisa. Most of these were restorations as they had crumbled not just in time but also been wrecked by the Red Guards. They had to be reconstructed again in the twentieth century.

In India where I grew up, in many of the countries I had visited in Europe and Asia, I had seen so much of preserved history that I felt reconstructions were not authentic and were less valuable.

In India where I grew up, in many of the countries I had visited in Europe and Asia, I had seen so much of preserved history that I felt reconstructions were not authentic and were less valuable. But then, I saw Angkor Wat 6 which I visited after returning from China. It had to be restored brick by brick and also the temple where they shot the Lara Croft movie, Tomb Raiders, Ta Prohm. Ta Prohm was being restored by the Archaeological Survey of India. These made me feel that perhaps restorations were not such a bad thing after all – it generated jobs and preserved heritage.

One can see amazing restorations in Yogyakarta too – the Prambanan temple 7 , which houses a temple to Brahma and many other Hindu deities, has been restored, the guide told us, with efforts of the Muslim majority. Syncretic lore actually flourishes in Indonesia with artistes participating in the performance of Ramayana, irrespective of their religion, caste or creed. The temples we visited seemed to be populated with devout worshippers of all faiths and cultures. I do not know if breaking mosques 8 to build temples that might have been built on an older Buddhist site makes any sense. Old buildings have dignity, heritage and history, which wealth cannot buy.

Wrecking an old monument to avenge a six-hundred-year-old historic event – do you feel that is justified?

Imitation London Bridge, Suzhou

Wrecking an old monument to avenge a six-hundred-year-old historic event – do you feel that is justified? Or will vandalising the statues of Columbus 9 or Walt Whitman 10 erase the darkness of racism that is concealed in people’s hearts? Can history be changed with violence that is in itself reflective of hatred and angst?

Imitations were another thing we enjoyed in China. Suzhou proudly hosted an imitation London Bridge 11 . This had nothing to do with antiquity but was a downright imitation. Having visited the original, I do have some reservations about the one I saw in Suzhou. I remember a friend of mine and I visited it for the first time. The bright red and turquoise combination and a café in one of the towers seemed a trifle strange. When we visited it last just for fun, they were growing a whole township around it.

Leaving is always sad. But this time tinged with sadness was a sense of relief.

Leaving is always sad. But this time tinged with sadness was a sense of relief. The wonder and acceptance that was evident in the local attitude towards foreigners when we came in 2006 was being replaced with a feeling that did not seem so friendly. Many of our expatriate friends were being replaced by returning Chinese. Their government welcomed back these people with hefty salaries – no questions asked. And the amazing thing was many of the returning population had taken on different nationalities. I still remember that in a function celebrating the variety of races that added colour to the school community, the American team was the largest and made up mainly of Chinese. When I mentioned it laughingly to the American team lead, she retorted in good humour, “Why? Are you jealous? Do you want some of them in India too?” In context of the current virulence towards tolerating differences in the world, that seems like another world, another era, another age.

Too many changes were taking place. We found that the local populace had started finding their voices and there were occasional disturbances we heard. Rules were being tightened. The bubble could burst any minute.


Our Leadership

David Coleman guides the overall direction and strategic priorities of the organization, with the goal of ensuring all students in our care are prepared to successfully complete college and career training.

Jeremy Singer

Jeremy Singer helps set the strategic direction of College Board and leads the execution of efforts that drive successful outcomes for students.

Steve Bumbaugh

Senior Vice President, College and Career Access

Steve directs efforts that ensure all students can access and maximize college and career opportunities.

Auditi Chakravarty

Senior Vice President, Learning, Evaluation, and Research

Auditi leads our efforts to understand and improve student performance.

Todd Huston

Senior Vice President, State and District Partnerships

Todd Huston oversees our regional offices and state and district partnerships.

Elissa Kim

Senior Vice President, Global Strategy and Talent

As the head of global strategy and talent, Elissa helps design new approaches to the College Board mission. She is responsible for building a world-class team dedicated to creating opportunity for all students.

Tracie MacMahon

Senior Vice President, Operations

Tracie has oversight and accountability for all core assessment operations functions and provides the operational perspective in developing and implementing our growth strategy.

John McGrath

Chief Communications and Marketing Officer

John McGrath leads all communications and marketing efforts of the organization.

James Montoya

Chief of Membership, Governance, and Global Higher Education and Secretary of the Corporation

In partnership with our members, Jim leads our membership, governance, and global higher education teams, managing large-scale, high-impact initiatives that promote equity and access for all students.

Jeff Olson

Chief Information Officer

Jeff Olson is responsible for ensuring that data supports all our student-centered efforts.


Contenido

Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company was established in 1994 as a joint venture between the Aditya Birla Group and the Sun Life Financial of Canada where the former owns 51% and the rest by latter which is a leading international financial services organization providing a diverse range of wealth accumulation, protection products, and services to individuals and corporate customers. [6] [7]

Aditya Birla Financial Services Group (ABFSG) is the umbrella brand for all the financial services business of The Aditya Birla Group. ABFSG ranks among the top five fund managers in India (including LIC) with an AUM of around Rs 3 trillion by 2021 [6] . [ cita necesaria ] The company provides life insurance, asset management, lending (excluding Housing), housing finance, equity & commodity broking, wealth management and distribution, online money management portal—Aditya Birla Money MyUniverse, general insurance advisory and private equity and health insurance businesses, for retail and corporate customers. In FY 2013–14, ABFSG reported consolidated revenue from these businesses at just under ₹ 70 billion (US$980 million) and profits of about ₹ 7.5 billion (US$110 million). [ cita necesaria ] The company has 14,000 employees and over 6 million customers, with 1,500 points of presence and about 130,000 agents/channel partners. [ cita necesaria ]

Sun Life Financial, Inc. operates in India through Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset Management. Established in 1994, Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Ltd. (BSLAMC), investment manager for Birla Sun Life mutual fund, has been a joint venture between the Aditya Birla Group and Sun Life Financial Inc. since 1999. Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund was the fourth largest Fund house in India based on domestic average assets under management as published by AMFI for the quarter ended March 31, 2014. [ cita necesaria ]

On 20 April 2021, Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset management company filed Draft Red Herring Prospectus (DRHP) to the Securities and Exchange Board of India in order to raise funds through an initial public offering (IPO). [8]

It offers a various investment schemes including debt and treasury products, investment solutions including fund of fund schemes, Wealth Creation, Tax Savings, diversified and sector specific equity schemes and also introduced research-based investments, wealth management services, Regular Income Schemes, offshore funds, hybrid and monthly income funds, and Savings Schemes. Till year 2020, it had the largest team of research analysts in the Insurance industry with operations in major worldwide markets, including the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines, Ireland, China, Hong Kong, Bermuda, and India.


Some Lesser Known Facts About Rhea Chakraborty

A Childhood Picture of Rhea Chakraborty With Her Parents

  • She has worked as a host in various TV shows, including ‘Pepsi MTV Wassup’ (2009), ‘MTV Gone in 60 seconds’ (2010), and ‘TicTac College Beat’ (2012).
  • She has acted in various Bollywood films, including ‘Sonali Cable’ (2014), ‘Half Girlfriend’ (2017), ‘Bank Chor’ (2017), ‘Jalebi’ (2018), and ‘Chehre’ (2020).
  • She has featured in various TV commercials including Yepme, Stayfree, and Maruti Suzuki.

Rhea Chakraborty in O Heeriye

Rhea Chakraborty Featured on a Renowned Magazine

Rhea Chakraborty With Mahesh Bhatt

I use a lot of Coconut oil. I drink it, I apply it on my face. And I can’t emphasise it enough.”

Rhea Chakraborty’s Facebook Post on Salman Khan

  • Her looks are compared with the Bollywood actress, Genelia D’Souza.
  • In an interview, when asked about her relationship with Sushant Singh Rajput, she said,

We’ve been very good friends for many years. I am fond of working towards our shared goals, like starting our new NGO, and travelling. If there is anything else between us or not, this isn’t something that I want to disclose yet.”

  • Reportedly, before committing suicide on 14 June 2020, Sushant had made the last phone call to Rhea.

Rhea Chakraborty at the Hospital Where Sushant Singh Rajput’s Body was Kept


Ver el vídeo: তম রব নরব -Tumi Robe Nirobe Rabindra Sangeet. Aditi Chakraborty. Full Video Song. Gan Goppo (Mayo 2022).